It is a hypometabolic clinical state resulting from inadequate production of thyroid hormones for prolonged periods or rarely from resistance of the peripheral tissues to the effects of thyroid hormones.
Main causes of hypothyroidism are Iodine therapy for grave’s disease in which low levels of thyroid hormones with raised TSH, Autoimmune disease- Hashimoto’s disease which causes chronic thyroid inflammation that reduce thyroid function, after treatment of hyperthyroidism with radioactive iodine or anti-thyroid medications, after surgical treatment of hyperthyroidism, radiation therapy for the treatment of cancers of the head and neck affect thyroid gland causing hypothyroidism. Rarely, congenital disease- babies born with the defective thyroid gland or no thyroid gland, pituitary disorder- a usually benign tumor of the gland causes failure to produce enough TSH, pregnancy.
The clinical manifestation of hypothyroidism depends on the age of onset and divided into 2 forms. First form is cretinism or congenital hypothyroidism- severe hypothyroidism seen during infancy and childhood. Second form is Myxoedema- adulthood hypothyroidism.
In case of cretinism, symptoms become evident within few weeks to months of birth. Common symptoms are slow to thrive, poor feeding, constipation, dry scaly skin, hoarse cry and bradycardia. Symptoms of fully developed cretinism are impaired skeletal growth and consequent dwarfism, round face, narrow forehead, widely set eyes, flat and broad nose, big protuberant tongue and abdomen, along with deaf-mutism, spasticity and mental deficiency. In this condition, TSH level rises with fall in T3 and T4 levels.
Myxoedema has slow onset and present symptoms like cold intolerance, constipation, mental and physical lethargy, slowing of speech and intellectual function, puffiness of face, loss of hair and altered texture of the skin. In this condition, T3 and T4 is low with marked elevated TSH.
Some of the best remedies for treatment of hypothyroidism are as follows,
- Extreme intolerance to cold.
- Increased irritability.
- Hair Loss
- Menstrual flow increased
- Increased intolerance to cold
- Excessive sweating
- Prolonged menstruation.
- Increased irritability
- Hair fall
- Intolerance to cold
- Chronic constipation
- Bloated abdomen.
- Gland enlarged
- Indigestion with flatulence
Other than above mentioned remedies, anacardium, baryta carb, conium, Lachesis, Nux vomica, tuberculinum, thyroidinum etc. also help in treatment of hypothyroidism. One should keep in mind that the selection of remedy based on symptomatology of the case.